Under medieval, feudalism is one of the most controversial concepts. Below are historical examples that challenge the traditional use of feudalism. So there were different „levels“ of domination and vassalage. The king was a lord who lent villains to aristocrats who were his vassals. In the meantime, the aristocrats were once again masters of their own vassals, the peasants who worked on their land. After all, the emperor was a lord who lent fiefdoms to kings who were his vassals. This traditionally formed the basis of a „universal monarchy“ as an imperial alliance and world order. An institution in the transition from feudal states to what is now free property was the allodified fiefdom, a fiefdom in which the feudal lord abandoned direct ownership – usually against the payment of allowances or allodidification rent (allodification rents) – but the property of the fief`s vassal with an agreed family estate – similar to a family company – remained. [Citation required] Stafford`s tenants were themselves masters of the masters they thought of him, which is completely different from their barons. Henry d`Oilly, who held three charges from Robert de Stafford, also held, as a tenant, more than 30 fees elsewhere, which had been granted directly to him by the king. While Henry was the vassal of his master Robert, Henry himself was the master of his own masters, who were kept in capitules, and he subsequently many of his masters, whom he did not care about Demesne, that is, under his own direction, with mere employees.
This would also have been possible and not unusual for a situation where Robert von Stafford was a vassal of Henry elsewhere, which created the condition of mutual/vassaling domination between the two. These complex relationships have inevitably created problems of loyalty due to conflicts of interest. To solve this problem, there was the concept of a lord, which meant that the vassal was loyal to his lord lying about all others, except to the king himself, no matter what. But this also sometimes failed when a vassal was more than one dregs. Feoffment (constitutio feudi, infeudatio) implied that the vassal was formally seized by a ceremony of praise of his fiefdom. In Franconian times, praise revolved around the so-called hand ceremony: the vassal shook hands and placed them in the hands of his master, who then shook hands around those of his vassal. He thus obtained symbolic protection from his new superior. From the end of the 9th century, this act was added to an oath of allegiance, usually sworn on a religious relic.