Simla Agreement 1914

    Negotiations failed when China and Tibet were unable to agree on the Sino-Tibetan border. [18] Chinese attorney Ivan Chen initiated the contract until it was confirmed by his government. He was then ordered by the Chinese government to reject his agreement. [10] On July 3, 1914, British and Tibetan plenipotentiaries signed the convention without the Chinese signature. They also signed an additional bilateral declaration stating that the agreement binds them and that China does not have any privileges under the agreement until it has signed it. [17] [19] [8] At the same time, the British and Lochen Shatra signed a new set of trade provisions to replace those of 1908. [20] The British government sees its new positions as an update of its position, while others see them as a major change in the British position. [e] Tibetan Robert Barnett believes that the decision has a broader impact. India`s claim to part of its northeastern territories, for example, is largely based on the same agreements – notes exchanged during the 1914 Simla Convention, which established the border between India and Tibet – that the British seem to have simply rejected. [28] It has been speculated that Britain has changed in exchange for an increased contribution from China to the International Monetary Fund. [28] [35] [36] The so-called McMahon line was never discussed at the Simla conference, but was determined by the British representative and representative of the Tibetan local authorities behind the back of the representative of the Chinese central government by an exchange of secret notes in Delhi on 24 March 1914, that is, before the signing of the Simla Treaty. This line was then marked on the map annexed to the Simla Treaty as part of the border between Tibet and the rest of China.

    The McMahon line was a product of the British policy of aggression against the Tibet region in China – and has not been recognized by any Chinese central government and is therefore firmly illegal. With regard to the Simla Treaty, it was not formally signed by the representative of the Chinese central government at the time, and the treaty specifically mentions it. After the exchange of secret notes between Britain and the local authorities in Tibet, Britain did not dare for a long time to publish the corresponding documents, nor to change the traditional way in which this part of the border was drawn on maps.1 The Simla Convention or the convention between Great Britain, China and Tibet[in] Simla[1] was an ambiguous treaty on the status of Tibet[2] , negotiated by representatives of the Republic of China. , Tibet and Great Britain in Simla in 1913 and 1914. On June 25, 1914, the British government, in a new attempt to convince the Chinese government to accept the Simla agreement, informed the Chinese government that on July 3, 1914, Tibet and India had signed the Simla Agreement in Simla that spawned the McMahon Line separating Tibet from India in the eastern sector. Although the agreement recognizes that „Tibet is part of Chinese territory“, the Chinese authorities of the time did not sign the convention, as they merely explicitly opposed Article 9 of the convention, which establishes the borders between inner Tibet and outer Tibet. In addition, the Chinese authorities have made it clear on several occasions that they have not raised any objections to another article, including the article that displayed the McMahon line. From the signing of the Simla Convention on July 3, 1914, to January 23, 1959, when Prime Minister Zhou wrote a letter to Nehru, the Chinese never made any formal objections to the McMahon Line; Although they had many opportunities to do so.

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