The CNMC sanctions the amendment of the 4th framework agreement on stowage, for restriction of competition – The entities (one business association and six trade unions) have, in the context of the negotiating committee of the 4th framework agreement on Stowage, the forced transfer – within the framework of the non-objective , (…) Treaties are promises that the law will enforce. Contract law is generally subject to the common law of the public and, although general contract law is common throughout the country, specific judicial interpretations of a particular element of the contract may vary from state to state. It seems somewhat ironic that the parties have an obligation to use arbitration, as stated in the agreement, to determine whether the agreement (which contains the arbitration clause) is effectively enforceable. On the other hand, if one party only questioned the applicability of the compromise clause (but not the applicability of the entire contract), most cases decided that a court should rule on this dispute. Contracts are mainly subject to legal and common (judicial) and private law (i.e.dem private contract). Private law first includes the terms of the agreement between the parties exchanging promises. This private right can repeal many of the rules otherwise established by state law. Legal broadcasting laws, such as the Fraud Act, may require certain types of contracts to be executed in writing and with special formalities in order for the contract to be enforceable. Otherwise, the parties can enter into a binding agreement without signing an official written document. For example, the Virginia Supreme Court in Lucy v. Zehmer, that even an agreement on a piece of towel can be considered a valid contract if the parties were both sane, and showed mutual consent and consideration.
Not all enterprise-to-company agreements are necessarily anti-competitive or prohibited by competition law. In several countries, competition law provides exceptions for certain business-to-business cooperation agreements, which can facilitate efficiency and dynamic changes in the market. For example, enterprise-to-company agreements may be allowed to develop uniform product standards to promote economies of scale, increased product use and the dissemination of technologies. Similarly, companies may be allowed to participate in cooperative research and development (R and D), to exchange statistics or to create joint ventures in order to share risks and pool capital in large industrial projects.